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What is galactorrhea?
Galactorrhea (say: “gal-act-tor-ee-ah”) is a condition that occurs when one or both breasts make milk (or a milky discharge). The breasts may leak only when the breasts are touched or with no stimulation. It can occur in women or in men, but is less common in men. A woman who has galactorrhea produces milk even though she is not breastfeeding a baby.
What are the symptoms of galactorrhea?
The symptoms of galactorrhea can include the following:
- Milky white discharge from one of both nipples (discharge may also be yellow or greenish in color). If the fluid coming from your breast is reddish, your healthcare provider may want to check you for cancer. Blood in the discharge is not galactorrhea.
- An absence of menstrual periods or periods that are not regular
- Vision loss
- Less interest in sex
- Increase in hair growth on your chin or chest
- Erectile dysfunction and less interest in sex in men
CAUSES & RISK FACTORS
What causes galactorrhea?
Galactorrhea has many causes, some of which include the following:
- Tumors (usually benign, or not cancerous), especially tumors of the pituitary (say: “pit‑too-it-terry”) gland, which is located in the brain
- Medicines such as hormones, antidepressants, blood pressure medicines and certain tranquilizers
- Herbal supplements such as nettle, fennel, blessed thistle, anise and fenugreek seed
- Drugs such as marijuana and opiates
- Clothing that irritates the breasts (such as scratchy wool shirts or bras that don’t fit well)
- Doing very frequent breast self-exams (daily exams)
- Stimulation of the breast during sexual activity
- Kidney disease
- Oral contraceptives
- An underactive thyroid (also called hypothyroidism), which is a gland that produces hormones
Sometimes the cause of galactorrhea can’t be found.
DIAGNOSIS & TESTS
What tests might my healthcare provider order?
Your healthcare provider might order blood tests to check your hormone levels and to see if you are pregnant. Your healthcare provider might also want you to have an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan of your head to see if you have a tumor or abnormality of the pituitary gland.
Tests are not always needed if you and your healthcare provider can figure out what is causing your galactorrhea.
How is galactorrhea treated?
Treatment depends on what is causing the galactorrhea. If a tumor is causing your symptoms, most tumors that cause galactorrhea are not cancerous. They can be treated with medicine or surgery. If a certain medicine you are taking is causing your galactorrhea, your healthcare provider may prescribe a different medicine. In many cases, no treatment is necessary, and the condition goes away on its own with time. Until it goes away, here are some things you can do to help:
- Avoid stimulating your breasts.
- Avoid touching your nipples during sexual activity.
- Don’t do breast self-exams more than one time a month.
- Avoid tight-fitting clothing or clothing that causes friction.
QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
- I’m a woman. Do I need a pregnancy test or other tests?
- I’m a man. Why is this happening? Do I need any tests?
- What do the test results mean?
- What is the likely cause of my galactorrhea?
- What are my treatment options? What treatment do you recommend?
- Can I make any changes at home to help relieve my symptoms?
Evaluation and Treatment of Galactorrhea by Kristin S. Pena, M.D., and Jo Ann Rosenfeld, M.D. (05/01/01, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20010501/1763.html )