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How common are food allergies?
Over 2.6 million Canadians self-report having at least one food allergy. The incidence is highest among young children (under 3 years of age) with close to 6-8% affected by food allergy.
What’s the difference between food allergy and food intolerance?
A true food allergy is a reaction triggered by the immune system (the part of your body that fights infection). Far more people simply have a food intolerance, which is unpleasant symptoms triggered by food (but does not involve the immune system).
For example, milk allergy is much more common in children than in adults. However, most children outgrow the allergy by 2 or 3 years of age. Symptoms of milk allergy include hives, vomiting and breathing problems after consuming a dairy product. Many adults may experience symptoms similar to milk allergy, as adults often have trouble digesting the sugar in milk. This is called “lactose intolerance,” and it isn’t an allergy because it doesn’t involve the immune system. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are bloating, cramping, nausea, gas and diarrhea.
What are the symptoms of food allergy?
The most common immediate symptoms of food allergy include the following:
- Hives (large bumps on the skin)
- Itchy skin
- Itchiness or tingling in the mouth
- A metallic taste in the mouth
- Coughing, trouble breathing or wheezing
- Throat tightness
The person may also feel that something bad is going to happen, have pale skin because of low blood pressure or lose consciousness. The most common chronic illnesses associated with food allergies are eczema and asthma.
Food allergy can be fatal if it is severe enough to cause a reaction called anaphylaxis (say: “anna-phil-ax-iss”). This reaction blocks the airways and makes it hard for a person to breathe. Fast treatment with a medicine called epinephrine (say: “epp-in-eff-rin”) can save your life. If you or your child has a severe allergy, your healthcare provider might give you a prescription for epinephrine self-injection pens. Your healthcare provider can show you how and when to use the pen. If your healthcare provider thinks you might need to use this medicine, you’ll need to carry one with you at all times.
A person having an allergic reaction should be taken by ambulance to a hospital emergency room, because the amount of adrenaline being pumped into the body can be dangerous. A healthcare provider can provide epinephrine to help slow down a person’s blood circulation, breathing and metabolism.
CAUSES & RISK FACTORS
What foods commonly cause allergic reactions?
Although people can be allergic to any kind of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and shellfish. These, in addition to mustard and sesame seeds have been identified by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as the key substances most frequently associated with food allergies.
Could I be allergic to food dyes or artificial flavors?
Studies have found that some food additives, such as tartrazine, or yellow No. 5, and aspartame (brand name: NutraSweet), an artificial sweetener, do cause problems in some people.
Could I be allergic to sugar?
No. A condition is called a food allergy when the immune system thinks a certain protein in a food is a “foreign” agent and fights against it. This doesn’t happen with sugars and fats.
What is the treatment for food allergy?
Once a true food allergy is diagnosed, avoid the food that caused it. If you have an allergy, you must read the labels on all the prepared foods you eat. Your healthcare provider can help you learn how to avoid eating the wrong foods. If your child has food allergies, give the school and other caretakers instructions that list what foods to avoid and what to do if the food is accidentally eaten. There is no cure for food allergy.
Will I outgrow my food allergy?
Although most children usually outgrow allergies to milk, eggs, soybean products and wheat, not all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish.
QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
- How can I be sure I have a food allergy, not a food intolerance?
- I have a food allergy. Am I more likely to be allergic to other substances?
- How do I know if a food is safe for me to eat?
- If I eliminate a food or a food group from my diet, am I at risk for any nutritional deficiencies?
- How do I make sure that all members of my health care team know about my allergy?
- How do I know if my allergic reactions are getting worse?
- I have a food allergy. Could I be at risk for anaphylaxis?
- Do I need to carry epinephrine? How do I use it?
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Food Allergy Canada
Manifestations of Food Allergy: Evaluation and Management by SH Sicherer, M.D. (01/15/99, http://www.aafp.org/afp/990115ap/415.html )