If you are having any symptoms or have any questions, please call 811 to speak with a registered nurse 24 hours a day.
Get emergency care if you or a loved one has serious thoughts of suicide or harming others.
What is depression?
Depression is a medical illness. Someone who has depression has symptoms nearly every day, all day, for 2 weeks or longer. This is considered major depression. There are other forms of depression that may have less severe symptoms. All the various forms of depression share the same usual causes and often the same treatments.
Depression can affect people of all ages and is different for every person. A person who has depression can’t control their feelings. If you or your child, teen, or older relative is depressed, it’s not their fault. Left untreated, depression can last for weeks, months, or even years.
Women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. The reason for this is unknown. Changes in a woman’s hormone levels may be related to depression
What are the symptoms of depression?
Symptoms are different for every person. You may have one or many of the symptoms listed below. Your symptoms may include only emotional or only physical symptoms, or both. The symptoms of depression may be different for children, teens, and seniors.
Emotional symptoms include:
- Crying easily or for no reason
- Feeling guilty or worthless
- Feeling restless, irritated, and easily annoyed
- Feeling sad, numb, or hopeless
- Losing interest or pleasure in things you used to enjoy (including sex)
- Thinking about death or suicide
Physical symptoms include:
- Changes in appetite (eating more than usual, or eating less than usual)
- Feeling very tired all the time
- Having other aches and pains that don’t get better with treatment
- Having trouble paying attention, recalling things, concentrating, and making decisions
- Headaches, backaches, or digestive problems
- Sleeping too much, or having problems sleeping
- Unintended weight loss or gain
CAUSES & RISK FACTORS
What causes depression?
Depression is typically caused by one or more factors. This includes genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological causes.
For example, depression may be caused by an imbalance of chemicals in the brain. Sometimes there aren’t enough chemical messengers (called neurotransmitters) in the brain. Neurotransmitters that affect your mood are serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. A chemical imbalance in the brain may be caused by one or more of the following:
- Your genes. Sometimes depression is hereditary. This means it runs in your family. You may be more at risk for having depression if you have a parent or sibling who has depression.
- A medical condition. Problems with your thyroid or nutrient deficiencies may be associated with depression.
- Events in your life. Depression can be triggered by stressful events in your life, such as the death of someone you love, a divorce, chronic illness, or loss of a job.
- Medicines, drugs, or alcohol. Taking certain medicines, abusing drugs or alcohol, or having other illnesses can also lead to depression.
Depression is not caused by personal weakness, laziness, or lack of willpower.
Can giving birth cause depression?
In the days following the birth of a baby, it is common for some mothers to have mood swings. They may feel a little depressed, have a hard time concentrating, lose their appetite, or find that they can’t sleep well even when the baby is asleep. This is called the baby blues and goes away within 10 days after delivery. However, some women have worse symptoms or symptoms that last longer. This is called postpartum depression.
DIAGNOSIS & TESTS
How is depression diagnosed?
Tell your healthcare provider about your symptoms. Don’t expect your healthcare provider to be able to guess that you’re depressed just by looking at you. You may feel embarrassed, or it may be hard for you to imagine treatment will actually help you feel better. But don’t wait to contact your healthcare provider. The sooner you seek treatment, the sooner the depression will lift.
Once you tell your healthcare provider how you’re feeling, they may ask you some questions about your symptoms, about your health, and about your family history. Your healthcare provider may also give you a physical exam and do some tests. It is important to tell your healthcare provider about any medicines that you are taking.
Reasons to get help early
- Early diagnosis and treatment helps keep depression from getting worse or lasting a long time.
- Diagnosis and treatment can help you return to your “normal” self and enjoy life.
- After you’re diagnosed, treatment can help prevent depression from coming back.
- Thoughts of suicide are common in people with depression. The risk of suicide is higher if you don’t get help for your depression. When depression is successfully treated, the thoughts of suicide will go away.
Can depression be prevented or avoided?
Generally, depression is a condition that cannot be prevented. There are lifestyle changes you can make that can boost your mood and minimize symptoms of depression (see depression treatment).
How is depression treated?
Depression can be treated with medicines, with counseling, or with both. Lifestyle changes can help. This includes a nutritious diet, regular exercise, and avoiding alcohol, drugs, and too much caffeine.
Depression can usually be treated through visits to your healthcare provider. Treatment in the hospital may be needed if you have other medical conditions that could affect your treatment or if you’re at high risk of suicide.
Your healthcare provider may prescribe medicine to treat your depression. These are called antidepressants. They help increase the number of chemical messengers (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine) in your brain.
Antidepressants work differently for different people. They also have different side effects. So, even if one medicine bothers you or doesn’t work for you, another may help. You may notice improvement as soon as 1 week after you start taking the medicine. But you probably won’t see the full effects for about eight to twelve weeks. You may have side effects at first, but they tend to decrease after a couple of weeks. Don’t stop taking the medicine without contacting your healthcare provider first.
Counseling may be a good treatment option for mild to moderate depression. For major depression and for some people with minor depression, counseling may not be enough. A combination of medicine and talk therapy is usually the most effective way of treating more severe depression. If you continue the combination treatment for at least a year, you are less likely to have depression come back.
In psychotherapy, you talk with a trained therapist or counselor about things that are going on in your life. The focus may be on your thoughts and beliefs, on things that happened in your past, or on your relationships. Or the focus may be on your behavior, how it’s affecting you, and what you can do differently. Psychotherapy usually lasts for a limited time, such as 8 to 20 visits.
In more serious cases, your doctor may suggest the use of electroconvulsive therapy (also called ECT or electroshock therapy). This is a procedure used to treat certain mental illnesses. Electric currents are passed through the brain in order to trigger a seizure (a short period of irregular brain activity), lasting about 40 seconds. Medicine is given during ECT to help prevent damage to muscles and bones.
Electroconvulsive therapy may help people who have the following conditions:
- Severe depression that does not respond to antidepressants (medicines used to treat depression) or counseling.
- Severe depression in patients who can’t take antidepressants.
- Severe mania that does not respond to medication. Symptoms of severe mania may include agitation, confusion, hallucinations, or delusions.
- Schizophrenia that does not respond to medication.
Living with depression
The most important part of living with depression is not giving up. If you stay focused and are consistent with treatment, your mood will improve over time. Consider these dos and don’ts as you work toward recovery.
- Pace yourself.
- Get involved in activities that make you feel good or feel like you’ve achieved something.
- Avoid drugs and alcohol. Both make depression worse. Both can cause dangerous side effects with antidepressant medicines.
- Exercise often to make yourself feel better. Physical activity seems to cause a chemical reaction in the body that can improve your mood. It is recommended adults aged 18-64 years get at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic exercise per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more. But even less activity can be helpful.
- Eat balanced meals and healthy foods. Avoid junk food and processed food.
- Get plenty of sleep. Keep your sleep routine consistent (waking up and going to bed at the same time each day).
- Take your medicine and/or go to counseling as often as your healthcare provider recommends. Your medicine won’t work if you only take it once in a while.
- Set small goals for yourself, if you have low energy.
- Encourage yourself.
- Get as much information as you can about depression and how to treat it.
- Contact your healthcare provider or the local mental health crisis supports right away if you start thinking about suicide.
- Don’t isolate yourself. Stay in touch with your loved ones and friends, your religious advisor, and your family healthcare provider.
- Don’t talk badly about yourself. Don’t expect to fail. This type of thinking is typical of depression. This thinking is part of depression. These thoughts will go away as your depression lifts.
- Don’t blame yourself for your depression. You didn’t cause it.
- Don’t make major life decisions while you are depressed. This includes marriage, divorce, separation, quitting your job, etc. You may not be thinking clearly while you are depressed. If you must make a big decision, ask someone you trust to help you.
- Don’t expect to do everything you normally can. Set a realistic schedule.
- Don’t get discouraged. It will take time for your depression to lift fully. Be patient with yourself.
- Don’t give up.
People who have depression sometimes think about suicide. This thinking is a common part of the depression. If you have thoughts about hurting yourself, tell someone. You could contact your healthcare provider, your friends, your family, or call your mental health crisis supports.
Get help right away. There are people who can help you, and depression can be successfully treated.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Mental Health Mobile Crisis Line (Nova Scotia)
Toll Free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week 1-888-429-8167
PEI Mobile Mental Health Service
Toll Free 1-833-553-6983, available 24 hours a day
Public Health Agency of Canada
Canadian Mental Health Association