Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
If you are having any symptoms or have any questions, please call 811 to speak with a registered nurse 24 hours a day.
What is coronary artery disease?
Coronary arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood to the heart muscle. Coronary artery disease (also called CAD or coronary heart disease) is caused by a thickening of the inside walls of the coronary arteries. This thickening is called atherosclerosis (say: “ath‑uh-roe-skluh-roe-suhs”). A fatty substance called plaque builds up inside the thickened walls of the arteries, blocking or slowing the flow of blood. If your heart muscle doesn’t get enough blood to work properly, you may have angina or a heart attack.
What are the symptoms of CAD?
Coronary artery disease may take years to develop. You may not notice any symptoms of coronary artery disease until the disease progresses. As your arteries become blocked you may experience:
- Angina (a squeezing pain or pressing feeling in your chest)
- Shortness of breath
- Heart attack
CAUSES & RISK FACTORS
What causes CAD?
Both men and women can get CAD. It can be hereditary (run in your family). It might also develop as you get older and plaque builds up in your arteries over the years.
Know your risk factors
In Canada, heart disease is the second leading cause of death. Risk factors for heart disease include:
- Family history
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Poor diet
- Overweight or obesity
- Inactivity (sedentary lifestyle)
- Other health problems (such as diabetes)
How is CAD treated?
Most people who have CAD take medicine to help control their condition. Medicines called beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and nitrates can help relieve angina. Taking low‑dose aspirin every day can reduce the chance of a second heart attack in people who have already had one. Your healthcare provider will tell you whether you should take any of these medicines.
What about surgery?
Angioplasty is a surgical treatment for CAD. Angioplasty uses a tiny balloon to push open blocked arteries around the heart. The balloon is inserted in an artery in the arm or leg. A small metal rod called a stent might be put into the artery where the blockage was to hold the artery open.
Another surgical treatment for CAD is bypass surgery. Pieces of veins or arteries are taken from the legs and sewn into the arteries of the heart to bring blood past a blockage and increase the blood flow to the heart. Bypass surgery is usually done when angioplasty isn’t possible or when your healthcare provider feels it’s a better choice for you.
Are there side effects and other risks to the treatment of CAD?
All medicines may have side effects. Aspirin may cause upset stomach. Nitrates may cause a flush (redness in the face) and headaches. Beta-blockers cause tiredness and sexual problems in some patients. Calcium channel blockers may cause constipation and leg swelling. Fortunately, most patients don’t have side effects from these medicines. If you have side effects after taking a medicine, contact your healthcare provider.
Surgery, such as angioplasty or bypass surgery also has potential risks. The major risks can include heart attack, stroke or even death. These are rare and most patients do well. After angioplasty, you can usually expect to return to your previous activity level, or even a better activity level, within a few days. It takes longer (a few weeks or months) to recover from bypass surgery.
How do I know which treatment is right for me?
Your healthcare provider will help you decide which treatment is best for you.
Does CAD ever go away?
CAD doesn’t go away, but by working with your healthcare provider, you can live longer and feel better.
What can I do to lower my risk of CAD?
- Don’t smoke. Nicotine raises your blood pressure because it causes your body to release adrenaline, which makes your blood vessels constrict and your heart beat faster. If you smoke, contact your healthcare provider to help you make a plan to quit.
- Control your blood pressure. If you have high blood pressure, your healthcare provider can suggest ways to lower it. If you’re taking medicine for high blood pressure, be sure to take it just the way your healthcare provider tells you to.
- Regular exercise can make your heart stronger and reduce your risk of heart disease. Exercise can also help if you have high blood pressure. Before you start any new exercise program, contact your healthcare provider about the right kind of exercise for you.
- Ask your healthcare provider about taking a low dose of aspirin each day. Aspirin helps prevent CAD, but taking it also has some risks.
- Ask your healthcare provider about taking vitamin supplements. While foods that are rich in vitamin E are very healthy and help reduce cardiovascular risk, the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care has concluded that there is insufficient evidence for or against taking vitamin E supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Even though a diet rich in healthy foods reduces cardiovascular risk, there is no clear evidence that taking multivitamins does the same thing.
- Eat a healthy diet. Choose fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, and whole grains. Try to avoid processed foods, white flour, sugars, and high fructose corn syrup. The Mediterranean Diet is also very good for heart health. If you have questions, contact your healthcare provider about how to make heart-healthy changes to your diet.
How do I know lifestyle changes are helping?
Rest assured that these lifestyle changes will lower your CAD risk, even if you don’t feel any different. Your body will also need time to respond to the changes you’ve made. Your healthcare provider will watch your progress. For example, if your cholesterol level hasn’t improved after you’ve made changes for a few months, your healthcare provider may prescribe medicine to lower your cholesterol. However, you will still need to keep up the healthy lifestyle changes you’ve started to help the medicine work.
QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
- Am I at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD)?
- What lifestyle changes should I make to decrease my risk of CAD?
- Do I need any tests?
- How many blockages do I have in my arteries? How severe are the blockages?
- What’s my best treatment option? Do I need medicine? Surgery?
- Will the medicine(s) you prescribed interact with the medicine(s) I currently take?
- What are some signs that I need to go to a hospital or seek treatment right away?
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Nova Scotia Toll free 1-800-423-4432
Prince Edward Island: (902) 892-7441
Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation Website at:
Public Health Services of Canada Website