Vomiting and Diarrhea
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What is vomiting and diarrhea?
Vomiting (throwing up) and diarrhea (frequent, watery bowel movements) are common symptoms of gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis is the inflammation and irritation of the stomach and intestines. Vomiting and diarrhea can be harmful because they can cause dehydration. Dehydration occurs when you lose too much fluid. Young children and the elderly can become dehydrated quickly, but dehydration can occur at any age.
What are the symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea?
Vomiting and diarrhea are usually considered symptoms themselves. You will know you are vomiting when you begin throwing up. You will know you have diarrhea when you begin having watery bowel movements.
The main result or sign of both vomiting and diarrhea is dehydration. It can be hard to tell if a person is dehydrated. Usually, by the time a person has signs of dehydration, they have been dehydrated for a while. If dehydration is severe, your loved one may need to be given fluids intravenously (by vein through an IV tube) to replace fluids lost through vomiting or diarrhea.
Signs of dehydration
- Little or lack of urine, or urine that is darker than usual
- Urinating less frequently than usual (fewer than 6 wet diapers a day for infants and 8 hours or more without urinating for children)
- Thirst (babies may show thirst by crying, being irritable and eager to drink when something is offered)
- Not eating as well as usual
- Weight loss
- Dry mouth
- No tears when crying
- In babies who are younger than 18 months old, sunken soft spots on the top of their heads
- Skin that isn’t as springy or elastic as usual
CAUSES & RISK FACTORS
What causes vomiting and diarrhea?
Vomiting and diarrhea can be caused by a number of things. These include viruses, bacteria, parasites, certain medicines, or certain medical conditions. Foods that are hard to digest (such as too many sweets) and undercooked (raw or partially raw) meat or fish can also cause vomiting and diarrhea.
Contact your healthcare provider if the vomiting and diarrhea don’t seem to be getting better or if the person who is vomiting and/or has diarrhea:
- Is younger than 6 months old.
- Is older than 6 months and has a fever higher than 38.6°C (101.4°F).
- Has signs of dehydration (see above).
- Has been vomiting longer than 8 hours or is vomiting with great force.
- Has blood in their stools.
- Has blood in their vomit.
- Has not urinated in 8 hours.
- Might have swallowed something that could be poisonous.
- Has a stiff neck or bad headache
- Is listless or unusually sleepy.
- Has had abdominal pain for more than 2 hours.
Can vomiting and diarrhea be prevented or avoided?
Avoiding foods that might be undercooked or raw can prevent vomiting and diarrhea. Since it can be caused by many things, though, it may not always be possible to avoid.
Anyone who has had several bouts of vomiting or diarrhea will need to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
- For babies: If you are breastfeeding, continue to give your baby breastmilk. Breastmilk has fluids and electrolytes needed to prevent dehydration. Your healthcare provider may also want you to give your baby an oral rehydration solution (ORS). Formula-fed babies should continue to take their usual formula while they have diarrhea. Do not dilute the formula. Your healthcare provider may also suggest switching from formula to an ORS, and then switching back.
- For toddlers and young children: Use an ORS, which contains the right mix of salt, sugar, potassium and other nutrients to help replace lost body fluids. You should avoid giving your child plain water and soft drinks. Water alone does not contain enough salt and nutrients to help with dehydration. Soft drinks are typically very high in sugar and can irritate your child’s stomach.
- For adults and seniors: To replace the fluids lost from vomiting and diarrhea, adults and seniors should try to drink at least 7 8-ounce (207 to 240 ml) glasses of water each day. Seniors may also use ORS or liquid meal replacements to help replace lost body fluids.
What is an ORS?
An oral rehydration solution, or ORS, is a great way to replace fluids and nutrients lost through vomiting and diarrhea. An ORS is safe for babies, children, and adults. An ORS can come in several forms, including a powder that you mix with water, a liquid that is already mixed and as frozen popsicles. Brands of ORS include Pedialyte, Gastrolyte, and the World Health Organization’s Oral Rehydration Solution (WHO-ORS). You can purchase these at most grocery stores and drugstores.
To use an ORS for vomiting, try giving small amounts of ORS often If the person is able to keep the drink down, slowly increase how much you give. Small amounts every few minutes may stay down better than a large amount all at once. When the person stops vomiting, you may increase how much of the ORS you give each time and add clear broths or clear sodas. Remember, small amounts are less likely to cause an upset stomach. If a person only has diarrhea and isn’t vomiting, they may have an ORS and other liquids as needed. Your healthcare provider may ask you to keep track of how much the child or senior drinks. You can use a dropper, a spoon or a measuring cup to help you keep track.
Living with vomiting and diarrhea
Vomiting and diarrhea usually don’t last long. If it’s caused by an infection, vomiting and diarrhea are a way for the body to get rid of the infection. Giving medicines that stop vomiting and diarrhea may actually interfere with the body’s efforts to heal. Antibiotics are usually not necessary either. Talk to your healthcare provider if you or a loved one is frequently vomiting or having diarrhea.